By analogy, if I were to ask you what is the position of your tongue in your mouth right now, you can answer that question, it becomes part of your awareness when I ask it, but it wasn't there before. Narrator: So, if our brains control our version of reality and we're largely unaware of what our brains are doing, the question remains, is it us, or our brains that are making the choices?
That's what Patrick Haggard is trying to find out. He's a Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience in University College London. He studies how we make decisions and whether or not we have the freewill to control our actions check this website.
I realize that we really understood very little about the higher levels of how the brain controls our movements and our actions. How does the brain decide when to make an action, when not to make a action? How does the brain decide which action to make? So, I began becoming interested really in how do you get thoughts into actions?
Narrator: Haggard devised an experiment to see if our brains are influenced to make a choice. Hello, Aaron. Hi.
Thanks for volunteering for this simple experiment where we're interested in the basis of the sense of control, the feeling of being in control of what happens. Narrator: Haggard wires his subject up to electrodes to monitor brain activity. When the subject sees a left pointing arrow, he presses the left button. If he sees a right pointing arrow, he presses the right button. And when he sees a double arrow, he can choose either button, but before the double-headed arrow, another arrow is flashed on the screen. It's so quick that the subject doesn't consciously see it.
Here we've slowed it down, so you can see the small arrow called a "subliminal prime". Played in real time, the subject doesn't see it, but his unconscious brain does, and he is more likely to press the button in the direction of that subliminal arrow. We can introduce a bias, and we can encourage people to "freely choose", in quote marks, to use their left hand or their right hand on any particular trial. So, you're feeling that you are freely deciding what to do and controlling what happens is in some senses an illusion, so that then raises the question of whether we control our brains, or whether our brains control us.
Narrator: To answer who is in control, Haggard does another experiment where the subject presses a button whenever she feels like it, and she indicates when she made the decision to act. The subject's brain waves reveal that there is a lot of neural activity over a second before she actually presses a button. So, what does this mean? Well it means that the brain begins to prepare the action long before you have the subjective experience that you are about to make it.
It's your brain, which makes the decisions, which controls the actions, which produces, if you like, all of your individual repertoire as a behaving person. What I think we can conclude in the view of modern neuroscience is that if we have freewill at all, it is a very small player in the system, if it exists at all. And that's because we know so much at this point about unconscious decision-making, about the ways that our biology influences us, about the way that we are totally dependent on the integrity of our biology, and when things change even a little bit due to brain damage, or a coffee, or drugs, or anything like that, who you are and how you decide, all of these things change, so we are our biologies. Narrator: So, if freewill is largely an illusion and our decisions are made by our unconscious brain, why do some brains make good choices and others make bad ones? Narrator: In 2011, Sid Weidman was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and prescribed a drug for the tremors.
Oh! And one of the most stunning things about what we're seeing in neuroscience is the degree to which who you are and how you act and your beliefs, they're all driven by mechanisms running under the hood to which we have no conscious access. Narrator: It turns out that your brain makes most of your decisions without your conscious awareness.
This is what's talked about is the unconscious brain. In the 1960s, the psychologist Eckhard Hess ran an experiment where he showed men pictures of women's faces, and all they had to do was rate from 1 to 10 how attractive they thought the woman was. What the men didn't know was that half the photographs have the same women but with their eyes dilated, so their pupils were bigger. And here's the thing; all the men thought that the women with the dilated eyes were more attractive, but none of them noticed this explicitly, they didn't see that the pupil had a difference of a few millimetres, and importantly presumably none of the men knew that dilated eyes is a sign of sexual readiness in women, but their brains knew it, and that steered their decision-making. And this is emblematic of all the ways that our decisions get steered by signals that we're not even aware of, things that cause us to act a certain way, or to be attracted to certain things, or be repulsed by certain things.
And we don't know why it's happening, but really the function of the brain is to gather information from the world and steer your behaviour appropriately, and that's it. You, the conscious you, doesn't have to be aware of any of how it's doing that. Here's an example of something that becomes automatized.
You're driving and I want you to make a lane change into your right lane. What does that look like? What do your hands actually do?
Most people will do this, they'll turn the wheel to the right and then they'll come back to centre, that's what they think a lane change looks like. In fact, if you did that, what's that done is that just steered your car and you've gone off the road into a storefront. The way that you actually do a lane change is by going to the right, back to centre, just as far to the left and back to centre again, that's what a lane change looks like.
And people do it everyday, but if you quiz people on it, you'll find they have no idea how they do it. And the lesson here is that this is an analogy for essentially everything that we do. How we respond to the world, how we react, the kind of people we are, why we do the things we do, why we believe the kind of things we believe, all of these are so deeply automatized that we don't even know why we do them, we just think it's all true.
Narrator: Eagleman says we're not only consciously unaware of what we do, we're also unaware of the reality that surrounds us. That is, until we stop and bring it to our attention. So when I walk out the front door, I think that I'm in the world and there's people and there's some activity out there, but really I'm only seeing the spot where I'm walking.
It's only when I pay attention and ask questions that I see more details, like I can attend to the sound of the fountain, (water splashing) or this photographer, or a girl reading a book, or a couple laughing, or somebody's shoes. It's only when I ask myself the question of what am I experiencing here that I pull those details into my internal model and have an experience of them. And this just is another illustration of how much your brain is doing under the hood that's unconscious and you're just walking through life imagining that you're seeing everything, imagining that your reality is the correct reality, but, in fact, everyone's got their own reality going on, on the inside
David Eagleman is a neuroscientist and the head of the Centre for Science and Law in Houston, Texas. So, what do we do with somebody who gets a tumour and becomes a pedophile, and when the tumour is removed he's no longer a pedophile? Situations like that really complexify our notions of culpability. And we can imagine cases where people are killed, and then there's a tumour removed and the person is no longer the person he was when he committed the murder, and we haven't faced that case yet in courts, but it's coming soon, and in part we know that because brain imaging has become prevalent now.
Narrator: Brain imaging has made it possible for neuroscientists to study the criminal mind in greater detail than ever before. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Director of Science at the Mind Research Network, Kent Kiehl, studies the brains of psychopaths. He's interested in why they commit a disproportionate amount of violent and criminal acts.
Psychopathy has been generally associated without conscience. The traits are synonymous with somebody having no guilt or remorse or empathy for what they've done. Narrator: Kiehl used magnetic resonance imaging or MRI machines to examine the brains of hundreds of psychopaths serving time in prison. He's created the largest database in the world. He's made some startling discoveries. Psychopaths' brains are very different from non-psychopathic or healthy brains.
The brain is like a muscle. So, they basically have less muscle mass in those emotional regions of the brain. And we believe that contributes to the symptoms related to psychopathic traits, lack of empathy, inability to experience remorse or guilt, in grey matter in the thinking areas of the brain. In individuals with psychopathy we find that these green areas are showing a reduction in grey matter density, and so it's essentially like come out of the womb with not the same amount of tissue there, not the same amount of working matter there as, as the rest of us, and so this contributes to the development of those symptoms.
We've also found that some of the tissues that connect the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe together are reduced, the wiring is thinner, which would suggest less connectivity between those regions, and that's, you know, a very important finding because it's believed to be, you know, very much a brain wiring issue, so that might be something they're born with. This is just three different planes, and so this is the front of the brain here, these are the eyes, right here, this is the orbital frontal cortex, and here are the two amygdala. So, it's these two structures and the connections between them that we have found are abnormal in individuals with psychopathy. Narrator: To test the implications of those findings, Kiehl is now using MRI to study how psychopathic brains react to different visual stimuli. Do they use emotional information, for example, the same way when you make a moral decision as other people do?
Narrator: In one experiment, Kiehl flashes images that would trigger a strong emotional response in most people. In the vast 95% of us, 99% of us, when you process these emotional pictures you get a big emotional response in the brain, this limbic circuitry goes off. But in psychopaths it's just, like, dark. The feeling that comes along with it doesn't happen, so they have this kind of disconnection between emotion and decision-making. Narrator: So, what about the rest of us?
Do we control our brains, or do our brains control us, and what's neuroscience telling us about how and why we make the decisions we make? We think that we know the reasons why we do what we do and why we believe what we believe, but, in fact, we have so little awareness of the vast machinery that we're sitting on top of. Narrator: Most of us believe that we're in conscious control of all our actions and every decision our brain makes. But David Eagleman says that's not the case.
Hi, I'm Dan Higgins. I'm here at the Intel booth at GDC 2017, and I want to tell you about Lords of New York, my game. Lords of New York is a 1920s poker RPG, which means it's a game about cheating in poker. So originally there was a movie, Rounders, with Matt Damon. And I loved that movie and I wanted to make an experience where you felt like Matt Damon.
I was like, who shouldn't feel like Matt Damon, right? Everybody wants to. So I want to give you these superstar abilities in poker, so that's how we gave these abilities. Like, how do I build intuition into characters when they go into poker, and make them come in and feel like they can read someone's body language and all that kind of stuff? So that's kind of the genesis of how we created Lords of New York. So it is a story-based game, so while there's a multiplayer component, there's a story.
And then the quests motivate the poker. So poker is like your combat, but you know you're not just out there to win money. You're traveling around New York, you're trying to win this tournament, but you're thrown in jail and you're trying to get out of jail, and all this kind of stuff. So all this drama, but poker is like your main combat. So we set our game in the 1920s, because if there was ever a period of time where I felt attached to, it was 1920.
And specifically it's 1927, which was a crazy year. It's like the Lindbergh year and the Babe Ruth year and all these famous murder trials, and there's a whole bunch of stuff that went on that's insane in that year. And so we actually kind of follow those events. They happen and you kind of get clued into it while they're happening. But really it's the era and the history that we love so much.
You know, prohibition, obviously. These are gangsters. So you're working around in a gangster world and even if you're not playing a gangster character, still prohibition is a big influence.
So one interesting element that you might find fascinating is, we did everything in 2-D, right? So Lord of New York is a 2-D game. But we wanted to add body language to our characters and we wanted to make our characters dynamic. So we actually built a brand-new type of 2-D animation system. So if you go to check out Lords of New York, you'll see that each character is a single texture. So we're able to do all this kind of expression dynamically with a single texture, which I know you game developers will love.
I'm going to be having a tool come out later which will allow all of you to do this as well. I was really introduced to Intel gaming through the Intel Buzz Workshop in Seattle. So I went to this workshop, and Lords of New York won the contest, which was amazing.
It was so incredible. And so we actually got, the award was a Brix machine. And that Brix machine turned out to be super vital for us. It was really cool. But from there, we had lots of great relationship moments with them, including, like, it plays great on Intel .
So being an indie developer, being a person who writes their own engine, I need all the support I can get. Nothing's free, nothing's given to me, so I have to-- QA, for example. All the indie developers have to battle this QA battle of, like, how do I get people to test my game try this website?
I don't know! Intel was able to put it through a hardware compatibility lab, crash results, performance results, all these things that-- it's a huge unknown, sending it out into the world and being like, I have no idea if it's going to play on everybody's machine. Getting back a chart of where things were in hardware was super valuable. So we're really grateful for Intel.
Obviously, I have a long history with them, VTune and TBB, which is the concurrency libraries I use. So I do a lot of heavy concurrency inside Lords of New York, which sounds strange. But I do lots of poker simulations to do the AI. In fact, you can go to Intel's website to find an article on our AI for Lords of New York if you're interested in that kind of personality-based AI stuff.
So Lords of New York is out on early access on Steam, so it's Mac and Windows right now. Later in the year it'll be on other platforms, but the primary right now. You can go there and it's multiplayer and our single-player preview.
So you can get a feel for what the single-player narrative will be like, but in several months you'll be able to actually play the full story, with chapter one of the story. And we're going to be developing Lords of New York over many years. So we're going to continually add characters, like a MOBA. You'll get a new character every month with new abilities and things like that.
If you are legitimately looking for a job right now, you may want to make a cover letter to turn in with your applications. A cover letter is basically a preview that lets employers see what they may be able to read more about in your resume. Think of it as an intro – something that should entice a hiring manager to work with you in the future. Once you have an idea of what this cover letter should include, you will have an easier time writing one good enough to get you a job in the future. Here are some tips to help you create the perfect letter to go along with your perfect resume, also important to check your letter by resume editing services.
An Example of a Good Cover Letter
It may be a little cocky of me to say that I have a good cover letter, but I have had several of my clients tell me that they were intrigued by my application because of how well-laid-out my cover letter was. I figured you may want to see a sample of it so you can get a clear understanding of what you should be aiming for in yours. Let’s take a look, shall we?
To whom it may concern:
I’m an experienced, communicative, and quick responding content developer, and I feel that I’m well qualified to handle your position. I have written on a variety of subject matters in the past 3 years, and I am flexible enough to work under any assignment stipulations. I have received nothing but perfect reviews from all of my clients because of my high standards, quality control, and constant communication with my buyers. You can check out my work profile at: (link to my work profile)
Most of my work does not have my name on it, but I currently run 70+ blogs and mini-sites for several clients online. Some of those blogs include:
Thank you for your consideration, and I hope to hear from you soon.
I send this out to people that I apply to work for online, and it gets me a job just about every time. I actually don’t have to apply for work anymore because I have developed a sound enough reputation on the web, but this thing still works whenever I need it to.
How to Write a Good Cover Letter
If you want a cover letter that is actually going to land you a job, you need to highlight your major accomplishments from the start. Explain the qualities and skills you possess that make you the best fit for the job, and try to showcase the information that employers would logically want to know about. That will give you the best chance at landing a job.
Try not to make it too wordy because employers will just skim over it. Bring out the best information about yourself, and then tell the employer to check resume for more information. You should be good to go after that.
Family camping with a dog adds a whole new set of issues to your camping trip which you must deal with after giving in to the kids pleas to bring BOZO camping.
Now you must ensure that the camping site you are visiting welcomes pets, have they rules for keeping pets. You also have to consider how he is going to travel, have you a suitabble dog box, personally I dont like having the dog in the passenger compartment and prefer to use a dog crate, this can also double up as the dogs secure area / sleep area whilst camping. Foldable dog crates are safe and secure and ideal for camping.
How does your dog interact with other animals, is he going to spend any free chance he gets trying to devour Misty the cat or is he like our Jack Russel, who has no problem facing down an Alsation. Is the dog likely to wander, because of the new found freedom and strange area. You obviously have to bring adequate dog food, utensils and sanitary equipment to ensure the dogs welfare is well looked after.
The article below gives further insights and goes through some good sites that are ideal for family camping with a dog.
Like all campers, dogs enjoy forgetting their domestication and rediscovering their wild side. They love getting out and playing in rivers and lakes, roaming through forests and meadows and generally reveling in their primal instincts.
Inviting your pooch to join you camping provides rewards for both. Dogs also love the new sights, sounds and smells — especially the smells — only found in the wilderness But, it’s not all fun and games for canine campers; your four-legged friends also have to understand that the wilderness has limits…
Like every aspect of family camping, camping with a dog requires thought and planning, if you and your family are to enjoy your camp vacation and your pet is to remain stress free.
Having trouble sleeping in the RV? Whether you are used to long distance travel and camping or you've been doing it all your life, at one point or another, you may find yourself looking for tips on how to get the rest you need in order to enjoy the fun of RV travel and camping. After all, going camping and taking in the brilliant scenery to be found while you're on the road is supposed to be fun, and whether you're talking RV travel or water skiing on the nearby lake, fun can only be enjoyed to the fullest when you are well rested and alert.
Fun is the reason most people refer to the many tips that are offered on today's RV travel and camping websites. Meanwhile, tips that help people sleep through the night or at least enjoy a more productive sleep are just as prevalent, and one of them is the pillow. Pillows come in all different shapes and sizes, but no matter which variety an RV travel and camping enthusiast prefers, sometimes a personal pillow is all it takes.
As you may have guessed, the first tip is to try bringing the pillow you sleep on at home. Studies prove that people sleep better and more soundly when they are in their own bed. While you can't bring your bed along on your RV travel and camping adventures, you can certainly bring your pillow. Of course, if you've already tried the home pillow tip, feel free to read on.
If the only time you have trouble sleeping is when you're in the midst of an RV travel and camping adventure and you've tried the pillow trick, your favorite blanket, and such things as temperature adjustments, the next tip is to considering reading a good book. While you may find the book "un-put-down-able," as they say, eventually reading almost always induces relaxation and sleep.
For the final RV travel and camping tip, try switching to another bed. Sometimes, all a person needs is a simple adjustment, and while the location may not seem to be a problem it's certainly worth a try if it means you might just get some rest!
If you are looking to go camping this summer and enjoy the great outdoors with yoiur friends or family then you will obviously want to get yourself some camping gear. Buying camping gear from scratch for the first time can be expensive. There are, however, several options such as second hand camping gear or taking advanatage camping gear sale.
As you probably already know, any kind of activity can never be completely felt if your materials and equipment are not enough. So that you will be able to enjoy the experience you really have to make sure that you have everything that you need. However, it is not only important that you have the complete set of tools because it is more important that you have the right one. And if ever you have to purchase, you have to be careful because you want to have what your money is worth and not something that has a low quality.
When starting out on your camping experience most people are interested in how to save money on purchasing camping equipment from various stores and internet web sites. They will usually pick the cheapest and settle with it because they think that with proper care, they can make it work and still last for a long time. This may seem sensible but you must realize that this is not the way to do it.
If you want to save money by buying cheap equipment, you are just doing the contrary because you are wasting it. However, this is not always the case and you need to be careful as some cheap gas stoves can end up being dangerous if they are defective or cheaply made. As a scout leader that does a lot of camping I always look around the end of season sales to purchase my camping gear and will buy the best that I can afford
Another great resource is the internet. There are several websites that can provide for an online camping gear sale service. This method is very convenient because you will not even have to leave the comfort of your house. Another great reason for buying on the internet from sites such as Amazon is that previous customers have often provided useful and relevant reviews.